A Molecular Approach to Primary Metabolism in Higher Plants by Christine Foyer

By Christine Foyer

Discusses and explains the main advances that the recent know-how of utilizing molecular genetic thoughts of editing carbon and nitrogen in crops has supplied, giving insights into its purposes for some great benefits of agriculture, the surroundings and guy. The textual content is split into 3 sections, the 1st targeting fundamental nitrogen and carbon assimilation and carbon partitioning; the second one compartmentation, shipping and entire plant interactions; and the 3rd to comparable metabolism to supply a entire and up to date account of this subject.

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Leaf absorbance is determined partly by photosynthetic pigment concentration and partly by leaf structural organization (Osborne and Raven, 1986). 3 A: The light saturation of the components which determine the quantum yield for PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII), qp (○) and F′v/F′m (●). F′v/F′m is sometimes called ‘excitation transfer efficiency’ (Φexc). The product of qP and F′v/F′m gives ΦPSII (■). 82 when measured with normal commercial fluorimeters. This optimal value is caused by the low intrinsic quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry coupled to an error in the measuring system due to the presence of the weak chlorophyll fluorescence from PSI.

These events are intimately involved with the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and protect the photosynthetic apparatus from damage in times of stress. 9. Down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiencies at times when light energy is in excess of the capacity to use available energy effectively, is essential to reduce the risk of singlet oxygen formation. Photorespiration and the Mehler-peroxidase reaction are also sinks for excess assimilatory power. 10. Amelioration of the antioxidative defences associated with the photosynthetic apparatus as a means of preventing stress-induced damage is currently being tested in several higher plant species.

Taken together, the experimental evidence discussed below largely supports the view that constitutive SOD expression tends to increase tolerance to oxidative stress. However, Tepperman and Dunsmuir (1990) obtained 30–50-fold increases in foliar SOD activity yet the transformed tobacco plants showed no additional resistance to oxidative stress. Transformed tomato plants with SOD activities 2–4-fold above those of the untransformed controls showed no additional tolerance to photoinhibition (Tepperman and Dunsmuir, 1990).

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