By P. Chu
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Additional resources for Advances in Solid State Circuits Technologies
In all, 58 photodiodes are used for programming an optically reconfigurable logic block. The optically reconfigurable logic block can be reconfigured perfectly in parallel. The CAD layout is depicted in Fig. 6. This is a standard-cell based design. 5 μm2. Wiring between cells was executed using the first to the third metal layers while avoiding the aperture area of the photodiode cell. Such optically reconfigurable logic block design is based on a standard cell design, except for custom designs of transmission gate cells and photodiode cells.
Furthermore, the single-ended transconductor of saturation-mode suffers from significant degradation of linearity. Several circuit design techniques for improving the linearity of transconductors have been reported in literatures. , 1998], pseudo differential stages [Gharbiya & Syrzycki, 2002], and shift level biasing [Wang & Guggenbuhl, 1990]. Source degeneration using resistors or MOS transistors is the simplest method to linearize transconductor. However, it requires a large resistor to achieve a wide linear input range.
The constant drain-source voltage of input devices is a simple structure. It can achieve a better linearity with tuning ability. However, it needs to maintain VDS of input devices in low voltage and triode region. Therefore, this technique is difficult to implement in low supply voltage. Hence, a new transconductor using constant drain-source voltage in low voltage application is proposed to achieve low-voltage, highly linear, and large tuning range abilities. In section 2, basic operatrion and disadvantage of the linerization techniques are described.