Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph (Clarendon by A. B. Bosworth

By A. B. Bosworth

During this learn, Bosworth appears at Alexander the Great's actions in principal Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression akin to the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and inspiration of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander by way of historians of antiquity. The booklet is directed to experts and basic readers alike.

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AI. 11; Curt. 14. 18), who simply states that'the elephant drivers turned their beasts against the cavalry', not noticing that it destroyed Porus' tactics, as outlined at 5. 15. 6-7. Polyaen. 22, by contrast, lays emphasis on the gaps which occurred in Porus' line and their exploitation by the Macedonians. 48 Arr. 5. 17. 3; cf. Diod. 17. 1-2; Curt. 8. 14. 22-8. 49 The elephants inflicted some casualties but were unable to break or seriously disrupt the Macedonian line. On the other hand the Macedonian cavalry, concentrated in a single mass, launched destructive forays against the rear of the Indian line.

48 But the Macedonians had acquired some experience of elephants over the past year and had clearly been well schooled by their Indian allies. Using their lethal 18-foot pikes (sarisae) they lunged up at the mahouts and at the beasts' eyes—there is also some evidence that they had been equipped with a special sickle-shaped cleaver, designed to gash and 45 Arr. 5. 17. 1; Polyaen. 4. 3. 22; Curl. 8. 14. 17. On the direction of Coenus' movement, behindthe Indian line, see Hamilton, JHS 76 (1956) 29-30; A.

9 For the history of the theory see my discussion in Entretiens Hardt 22 (1976) 3-6. The most complete exposition in recent years is that of Hammond (GRBS 28 (1987) 331-47- Historian (1988) 129-50; Sources 200-5) • For sceptical criticism of the 'Diaries' seeBadian, in Zu AI d. i. 610-25; Bosworth, Front Arrian to Alexander 157-84. 10 From this perspective the archive is an instrument of concealment, and one might add that a king has more to conceal than anybody else. An official diary is therefore suspect when its authority has something to hide.

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