An embedded interactive monitoring system for PV-Diesel by Boonyang Plangklang.

By Boonyang Plangklang.

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In this case, the acceptable power factor is defined. The maximum power of the inverter is given in Kilo-Volt-Amperes (kVA) instead of Kilo-Watts (kW). The energy of the reactive power, which is to be absorbed and afterwards re-injected to the load, is normally stored in capacitors of appropriate sizes. Inverter efficiency is generally low at low power level and good (80%-90%) at high power levels depending on the inverter type, see Figure 2-22. 31 Chapter 2: PV-Diesel hybrid system technology Figure 2-22: Example of inverter efficiency versus capacity Pac/Pac(nom) [SMA] A way of alleviating the problem of low efficiency is to operate the inverters only at preferred levels of output.

To avoid such an operation condition, bypass diodes are connected anti-parallel to the solar cells as in figure 2-12. As a consequence, larger voltage differences cannot arise in the reverse-current direction of the solar cells. In practice, it is sufficient to connect one bypass diode for every 1520 cells. Bypass diodes also allow current to flow through the PV module when it is partially shaded, even if at a reduced voltage and power. Bypass diodes do not cause any losses, because under normal operation, current does not flow through them.

E. e. workshops, hospitals, restaurants and hotels) depending of the application, mostly appliances with high load demand In order to be able to properly size the hybrid system to provide an adequate power supply system for a remote village, the peak power, the daily energy consumption and the annual energy growth should be estimated according with load profile category. This is necessary in order to size both the generating plant and the conductor used in the distribution system. The sustainability of the system will not be guarantied if the capacity of the system is too small and leads to consumer dissatisfaction.

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