By Cary D. Alberstone, Michael P. Steinmetz, Imad M. Najm, Edward C. Benzel
2010 Benjamin Franklin Silver Award Winner!
Praise for this book:
Superbly written...Each anatomic constitution is mentioned intimately, but the language is concise and never overwhelming...accompanied through outstanding colour illustrations which are broad and original...the ideal resource.--AANS (American organization of Neurological Surgeons) younger Neurosurgeons' Newsletter
Anatomic foundation of Neurologic Diagnosis is a lavishly illustrated booklet that areas designated emphasis at the paramount value of signs for the actual analysis of neurologic problems. It opens with a entire evaluate of neuroembryology, allowing readers to realize wisdom of standard frightened procedure improvement and comparable developmental problems. the second one part of the booklet includes an simply obtainable presentation of the anatomy of neighborhood elements and to-the-point details at the cardinal manifestations of disorder. Separate chapters within the 3rd portion of the booklet current the anatomy of alternative sensible platforms and supply sensible methods to diagnosing sufferers with approach problems. a last bankruptcy covers the anatomy of the vascular approach and cerebrospinal fluid.
• functional association of chapters, in accordance with areas and useful structures, displays the clinician's method of sufferer care • Full-color illustrations supply an essential visible relief to studying and reviewing clinically proper neurologic anatomy and pathways • a variety of tables summarize key points
Ideal for examining cover-to-cover, this publication is key for citizens and scholars trying to totally comprehend the complexity of medical neuroanatomy. pro clinicians will locate the ebook a precious refresher.
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Extra resources for Anatomic Basis of Neurologic Diagnosis
Spinal puncture at the level of the second cervical vertebra under fluoroscopic guidance has been suggested as a less hazardous approach than cisternal puncture, but its actual value remains unproven. Ventricular CSF may be of great diagnostic value if there is a predominantly intraventricular infection with obstructive hydrocephalus or in the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (54). Routine Studies of Cerebrospinal Fluid Studies routinely obtained at the time of LP include measurement of CSF pressure, gross examination of the fluid for turbidity or changes in color, measurement of CSF protein and glucose concentrations, RBC and WBC counts, Gram and/or acid-fast stains of CSF sediment, and Gram stain and bacterial culture of the fluid.
Under pathologic conditions, CSF may become turbid, discolored, or both. 2/21/14 5:27 PM Chapter 2: Cerebrospinal Fluid in Central Nervous System Infections The CSF may become turbid as a result of entry of cells, bacteria, or fat; it can be made turbid by as few as 200 WBCs/mm3 or 400 RBCs/mm3 (1,58). CSF containing RBCs will be grossly bloody if 6,000 or more RBCs are present per cubic millimeter, and it will be cloudy and xanthochromic or pinkish if 400 to 6,000 cells are present (1). The yellow discoloration of the supernatant is termed xanthochromia and is often used to distinguish between a so-called bloody tap and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Protein is largely excluded from CSF by the blood–CSF barrier and, under normal conditions, reaches CSF by pinocytotic transport across capillary endothelia (83). 2) is less than 45 mg, and the CSF/serum ratio of albumin is 1:200 (1,13). Mean values of lumbar CSF protein in healthy children and adults have ranged from 23 to 38 mg/dL, and the extreme upper and lower concentrations have been 58 and 9 mg, respectively (1). 2). Protein concentrations in cisternal and lumbar CSF are lower, ranging from 13 to 30 mg/dL (1).