By Raphael Bernier Ph.D., Jennifer Gerdts
This guide presents an outline of the present medical realizing of autism spectrum problems, in addition to a cultural and old viewpoint at the controversies that plague the field.
• provides diagnostic standards from the yankee Psychiatric organization manual
• includes quotations and excerpts from medical literature and textual content from courtroom court cases regarding the Vaccine damage Program
• contains a chronology of significant occasions within the box of autism, starting in 1910 while the be aware "autism" was once first used
• 12 charts, figures, and graphs illustrate autism prognosis, neuroscience, therapy, incidence, and cultural factors
• comprises reference bibliographies on the finish of every bankruptcy, in addition to a bankruptcy of annotated print and nonprint assets with regards to autism
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Additional info for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)
There has been much debate over the purpose of these behaviors and another school of thought purports that the behaviors serve actually to calm an individual during times of overstimulation by the external environment. The controversy about the purpose of selfstimulatory behaviors remains unresolved. Higher Order Repetitive Behavior Individuals with ASD often have specific interests in topics such as particular video games or certain characters in a television show. Although it is common for typically developing individuals to have interests and preferences, a restricted/repetitive interest differs from typical interests in that conversations often turn to this specific topic, it can be difficult to shift the person’s interest to other topics, and this interest can take up the majority of the individual’s time for many months and often years.
Difficulties must begin early in life and are assessed by an evaluation of cognitive abilities and daily living skills. There are a range of different levels of intellectual disability, from mild to profound. In recent years, diagnoses of intellectual disability have decreased while numbers of autism diagnoses have increased (Croen et al. 2002). Many experts believe that this is due to identifying many children previously labeled with intellectual disability as having autism. In the past, many more children diagnosed with autism had co-occurring intellectual disability and a large percentage were nonverbal for the duration of their lifetime (Rutter, Greenfield, and Lockyer 1967).
Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 60–70 percent of individuals with autism have cooccurring intellectual disability (Fombonne 2003) and one-third to one-half of those diagnosed with Autistic Disorder have severely impaired language and/or remain nonverbal through adulthood (Howlin et al. 2004). , self-care, independent living skills, and interpersonal skills). Difficulties must begin early in life and are assessed by an evaluation of cognitive abilities and daily living skills.