Automatic Fingerprint Recognition Systems by Nalini Ratha, Ruud Bolle

By Nalini Ratha, Ruud Bolle

An authoritative survey of clever fingerprint-recognition suggestions, know-how, and platforms is given. Editors and participants are the major researchers and utilized R&D builders of this own id (biometric safeguard) subject and expertise. Biometrics and trend attractiveness researchers and execs will locate the booklet an crucial source for present wisdom and know-how within the field.

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This would somewhat streamline the manual searching process, but not much [10, 37, 72]. This, of couse, was mere data processing, not automated pattern recognition. S. National Bureau of Standards [72]. During 18 Simon A. Cole the late 1960s and early 1970s, General Electric [41], McDonnell Douglas, Sperry Rand, and the KMS Technology Center all conducted research on holographic imaging. Although holography was an attractive technology, these early forays suggested that a holographic identification system would be extremely expensive and also exceedingly sensitive to inevitable noise contained even in inked, not to mention latent, fingerprint impressions [63, 72].

Whereas anthropometric systems demanded that skilled operators input data into the system (that is, 1. History of Fingerprint Pattern Recognition 15 meticulously record physical measurements according to a precise set of instructions), fingerprint data could be input by low-skilled operators, who merely needed to ink the fingerprints and roll them on the fingerprint card. Fingerprint systems shifted skilled operators to the “back end” of the process: the classification of the cards according to the Henry or Vucetich system.

These drawings show a sensing array built as an integral part of a monolithic semiconductor integrated circuit. The device illustrated measures local conductivity at each pixel using an active array of under pixel electronics. Electronic switches under each pixel allowed the signals to be multiplexed onto column buses for readout. This device also illustrates the use of a flexible membrane conforming to the ridges and valleys of the finger, an approach common to many early sensors. Constructing such a membrane to be simultaneously flexible enough to follow the ridges and valleys and rigid enough to be robust in use has proven to be a difficult challenge indeed.

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