Bantu Orthography Manual by Leila Schroeder

By Leila Schroeder

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It is optimal to write only one, especially if most of the mother-tongue speakers are not already reading a language which distinguishes the two in writing. If there is one liquid, is usually chosen (especially if it is already in use with a LWC). [l] Options: or [R] Options: or Example: In Zinza E23(J), /ɾ/ does not occur as a phoneme contrasting with /l/, but is written, in accord with Roman Catholic tradition, for proper names. Chapter 2 - Representing Linguistic Features 25 Fricatives Plosive b [b] contrasting with a fricative b [ß] Gungu, E101(J), is one language in which plosive b and fricative b are contrastive.

Homorganic nasals, according to Barbara Heins (pc). ‘clay plate, pot lid’ ‘war’ / ͫ bale/ /nkʰo ‘brother’ ‘path’ /ṃbale/ /ṇkʰondo/ Heins says, “The pronunciation of ph, th, kh, d and b is affected by prenasalization (the indicates aspiration). and are normally implosive and lose their implosivity, as in ‘clay plate’ above. In the aspirated stops the consonants are in the process of dropping out as in Shona. ” [Ṇ] Options: <Ṇ> or < > or or Discussion: the apostrophe is probably the most commonly used marker to distinguish syllabic nasals from others, but apostrophes have their problems, being used for several other things, such as elision, possessives and as components in trigraphs.

The principle of referential independence: A morpheme qualifies as a word if it clearly communicates meaning, even when heard or seen in isolation. Conversely, each language has certain morphemes which cannot communicate meaning in isolation, such as Bantu noun class markers. 2. The principle of conceptual unity: This requires that each written word convey only one concept. When compound words are formed, it is because the two words join to form a new and unique concept. 3. , blackbird and black bird are distinguished orally by different stress patterns).

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