Britannica Illustrated Science Library Plants, Algae And by Inc. Encyclopaedia Britannica

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Obtaining high-quality olive oil involves a chain of processes that begins at the tree and ends with the packaging of the end product. The quality begins in the fields and depends on a combination of soil, climate, oil variety, and cultivation and harvesting techniques. The remaining operations in the extraction process (transportation, storage, manufacturing, and extraction of the oil) are responsible for maintaining that quality. O Cultivation Plowed land, a moderate climate, an altitude of up to 2,300 feet (700 m) above sea level, and up to 15 inches (40 cm) of rain per year sum up the conditions needed for the development of olive plants.

In Europe during the Middle Ages wheat bread was a costly food, not part of the common diet. Most people ate bread and drank beer prepared from rye. This made them susceptible to ingesting mycotoxins from Claviceps purpurea. Thus, the largest number of cases of ergotism occurred during this time.

If the insect is slow to react or move as the trap begins to close, it will be unable to escape. 3 Digestion In less than three minutes the trap has completely closed, and the digestion of the prey's tissue begins. Special glands located in the interior part of the upper leaf secrete acids and enzymes that chemically degrade the soft parts of the insect's body. When the leaf-trap reopens after a few weeks, the wind blows away the parts of the exoskeleton that were not digested. 62 RARE AND USEFUL PLANTS PLANTS, ALGAE, AND FUNGI 63 Hanging from Other Plants SPECIAL SIGNS These plants are recognized for their bulbs, which have the shape of a small rose, and for their triangular leaves, which are densely covered by hairs.

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