C++ International Standard (ISO IEC 14882:2011) by ISO IEC JTC 1 SC 22 WG 21

By ISO IEC JTC 1 SC 22 WG 21

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This is normally referred to as “sequential consistency”. However, this applies only to data-race-free programs, and data-race-free programs cannot observe most program transformations that do not change single-threaded program semantics. In fact, most single-threaded program transformations continue to be allowed, since any program that behaves differently as a result must perform an undefined operation. — end note ] 22 [ Note: Compiler transformations that introduce assignments to a potentially shared memory location that would not be modified by the abstract machine are generally precluded by this standard, since such an assignment might overwrite another assignment by a different thread in cases in which an abstract machine execution would not have encountered a data race.

The process of dividing a source file’s characters into preprocessing tokens is context-dependent. [ Example: see the handling of < within a #include preprocessing directive. — end example ] 11) Implementations must behave as if these separate phases occur, although in practice different phases might be folded together. 12) A partial preprocessing token would arise from a source file ending in the first portion of a multi-character token that requires a terminating sequence of characters, such as a header-name that is missing the closing " or >.

The implementation shall ensure that no program execution demonstrates a cycle in the “happens before” relation. [ Note: This cycle would otherwise be possible only through the use of consume operations. — end note ] 13 A visible side effect A on a scalar object or bit-field M with respect to a value computation B of M satisfies the conditions: — A happens before B and — there is no other side effect X to M such that A happens before X and X happens before B. The value of a non-atomic scalar object or bit-field M , as determined by evaluation B, shall be the value stored by the visible side effect A.

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