Character variation in Angiosperm families. by Aaron. Goldberg

By Aaron. Goldberg

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2 Leaf form and geographic distribution: North American Toxicodendron radicans subspecies. POISON OAKS, POISON IVIES, AND RELATIVES 29 Subspecies pubens is found in the lower Mississippi Valley, whereas subspecies eximium and verrucosum occur near each other in Texas. As might be expected, the subspecies are all very much alike. 2). 2 Toxicodendron Checklist Localea Stature Leafletsb Classification Pinnate, 7–13 Oak-like, smaller in full sun, 3 Spoon-like, ~3, rounded Ivy-like, 3 T. vernix T. diversilobum United States and Canada US, E of MS R US Pacific Coast, Baja–BC N US, S Canada, UT–KS S to Mex US, E of MS R, S of Ohio R US Midwest to Plains US, E TX, MS Valley, TX coast US, Rio Grande area US, N TX–OK SE US, TX, OK, LA Tree/large shrub to <5 m Shrub/climber to 20 m, common Shrub, never climbs Shrub/climber, aerial roots, common Low shrub Shrub/vine, aerial roots Low shrub/vine, rare Shrub/vine, aerial roots Small shrub, never climbs Ivy-like, Gl both sides Ivy-like, top rough, underside hairy Deeply incised, pointed Gl Both sides, tips acute Oak-like T.

Pubescens (P. Miller). As is increasingly common, this book usually will not include such attributions. 24 THE POISONED WEED Advances in analytical chemistry often have provided a ‘‘chemical taxonomy’’ by which species are differentiated and classified according to the presence or absence of one or more chemical constituents. Surprisingly, this apparently has not yet been applied to Toxicodendron species or other Anacardiaceae, although limited analysis as well as the uniformity of poisoning symptoms suggest that the toxic agents—urushiols and laccols—surely provide a common chemical link not seen outside the genus (chapter 5).

From Guatamala and Costa Rica, the arboreal T. striatum has moved into Venezuela (Blohm, 1962) and as far south as Bolivia (Mitchell, 1990; fig. 3). On the other side of the Pacific, T. radicans ssp. hispidum occurs in Taiwan and into central China but not in Japan and the Kurile Islands, home of T. radicans ssp. orientale. From China south, the wax tree, T. , 1965), whereas Japanese lac, T. vernicifluum, is found in northern China and Japan. The less common T. nodosum is seen in peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia, and southwestern Borneo (Sarawak), but North Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, and Kalimantan) provides the only home for the rare Toxicodendron borneense.

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