By B. Ganananda Nanayakkara
Color Atlas of Human Anatomy - Head and Neck is designed to supply an figuring out of the human head and neck sector for undergraduate and submit graduate scholars in drugs and Allied health and wellbeing Sciences. it's a functional advisor within the dissection theater to spread the location and family members of the constructions of the top and neck. regardless of many Anatomical Atlases at the moment to be had, there seemed to be a necessity for an Atlas which compliments the Cunnighams handbook of sensible Anatomy, that's largely approved around the world as a typical anatomy textual content. This Atlas used to be conceived with the goal of pleasurable that want. color Atlas of Human Anatomy - Head and Neck follows the Cunninghams guide of functional Anatomy (Volume 3). It involves sequential pictures taken at quite a few levels of dissection of the top and neck quarter. for that reason the pictures let aspect by means of part comparability with anatomical constructions encountered throughout the dissections. during this manner, we are hoping to bridge the distance among description of the textual content booklet and what scholars see within the cadavers. All images are thoroughly categorised for the benefit of scholars comprehension and id of salient anatomical good points on dissected specimens. Specimens are classified permitting scholars to hold out self-testing in their wisdom.
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Akaike H, Company NP (1981) Likelihood of a model and information criteria. J Econom 16:3–14 36. Schwarz G (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model. Ann Math Stat 6:461–464 37. Keller BG, Kobitski AY, Jaeschke A, Nienhaus GU, Noe F (2014) Complex RNA folding kinetics revealed by single molecule FRET and hidden Markov models. J Am Chem Soc 136:4534–4543 Chapter 4 Predicting Beta Barrel Transmembrane Proteins Using HMMs Georgios N. Tsaousis, Stavros J. Hamodrakas, and Pantelis G. Bagos Abstract Transmembrane beta-barrels (TMBBs) constitute an important structural class of membrane proteins located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
5 Notes 1. Estimation of HMM parameters (transition matrix, emission probability distribution, and initial state probabilities) is done by expectation-maximization (EM). Expectation maximization is done in two steps. The forward–backward algorithm is applied in the E-step. In the M-step, a modified log likelihood function, which is penalized for L1 regularization, is maximized to estimate HMM parameters. Detailed balance is also enforced during the M-step in order to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics.
3. The scores for each fold and for each protein of the training set were entered into the optimization procedure, along with the initial parameters (which are all set equal to 1). The optimization procedure identifies the optimal parameters, which are multiplied with the scores of the test set proteins against the 3-HMM. The final scores were used for the fold classification of the test proteins. It should be noted that the training proteins correspond to the primary and the true secondary structure of the proteins, while the test proteins correspond to the primary and the predicted secondary structure of the test proteins.