Control Flow Semantics (Foundations of Computing) by Jaco de Bakker, Erik de Vink

By Jaco de Bakker, Erik de Vink

Control movement Semantics offers a unified, formal remedy of the semantics of a large spectrum of keep an eye on circulation notions as present in sequential, concurrent, good judgment, object-oriented, and useful programming languages. while in additional conventional techniques one specializes in input/output habit, during this paintings equivalent consciousness is dedicated to finite and countless computations, the latter stimulated via the turning out to be value of reactive systems.

wisdom of the comparative semantics of regulate constructions is important for the designers of programming languages, and it truly is tough to choose between state-of-the-art bewildering number of regulate stream strategies (the ways that a application specifies the successive steps to be taken in the course of execution). Encyclopedic in scope, Control stream Semantics presents accomplished assurance of those options, constructing operational and denotational versions for regulate movement in 27 languages. In all instances, exact statements are given referring to those models.

A wealthy physique of semantic definitional options is gifted, together with (labeled) transition structures, higher-order definitions, resumptions and continuations, linear or sequence-based types, and types laid out in area equations. in addition, either symbol-based or schematic languages—prevalent within the research of concurrency—and state-based or interpreted languages are thought of. The ebook is based on a unifying mathematical foundation of metric constructions, permitting the entire modeling of countless habit, in addition to the exploitation of a few classical effects, similar to Banach's mounted aspect theorem. views on extra issues, equivalent to complete abstractness, noninterleaving semantics for parallelism, and second-order programming also are included.

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Real-world applications sometimes need numbers even bigger than the maximum value of long. In those cases, Java provides a class called BigInteger. A number represented by a BigInteger object can be of any size, because the BigInteger class allocates enough bytes to store a representation of any number. It's a little tricky to use and operations on BigInteger objects are slow, but it's sometimes the only way. BigInteger is not a primitive. Real Primitives Real numbers have decimal points and values after the decimal point.

Fields A field is a member of a class or (rarely) an interface that holds a value. Fields let us store the bits of information that we care about when we use a particular class. For example, the height and width fields in a class that defines rectangles are important to the purpose of the class. In the AverageImpl class listed earlier in this chapter, the following line defines a field: private long begin; This particular field contains a value of type long (which is a really big number—we get to data types in the next chapter).

In Java, a constant is a field with a particular set of modifiers: static and final. Most are also public, though it is possible (and sometimes useful) to have private, package, and protected constants. We use a private constant in the AverageImpl class to avoid typing the same string twice. By convention, the names of constants are all uppercase and have underscores between the units that are logically words as in Listing 2-9. Listing 2-9. A constant private static final String EXCEPTION_MESSAGE = "ints must contain at least one int"; Methods A method is basically something that a class can do.

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