By A. Gyr, H.-W. Bewersdorff
Drag aid of Turbulent Flows by means of Additives is the 1st therapy of the topic in e-book shape. The remedy is intensely vast, starting from physicochemical to hydromechanical elements.
The ebook indicates how fibres, polymer molecules or surfactants at very dilute concentrations can decrease the drag of turbulent movement, resulting in power discounts. The dilute suggestions are thought of by way of the actual chemistry and rheology, and the houses of turbulent flows are provided in adequate element to give an explanation for a few of the interplay mechanisms.
Audience: these energetic in basic examine on turbulence and people trying to practice the consequences defined. Fluid mechanical engineers, rheologists, these attracted to power saving equipment, or in the other program during which the movement fee in turbulent movement can be elevated.
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Extra resources for Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flows by Additives (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
Fig. 3 is an example of a numerical solution for a molecule in simple shear flow starting from an initial S-shape. The result is that flexible threads practically always rapidly straighten and tend towards an orientation in which they are in tension. This tension then snaps the thread straight. In both models, for the spongy deformable molecules as well as for the flexible inextensible threads, the molecules become oriented and elongated. 3 The straightening of a flexible inextensible thread in a shear flow, starting from the S-shape.
The shear viscosity at extremely low shear rates, (y~O), is measured in this dilute regime this linear relationship can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolation, (c~O). 41) In this equation the constant, K, depends on the polymer-solvent system. 5 and 2. If the constant, K, and the exponent, a, of a particular polymer-solvent system are known, this relationship can be used to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by viscosity measurements. g. by Brandrup & Immergut (1975) or for water soluble polymers by Bekturov & Bakauova (1986).
When a Newtonian fluid leaves a capillary of diameter, d, into air, no dramatic change in the diameter of the jet occurs. In contrast, in a flow of a viscoelastic fluid the diameter of the inc~:ease up to three times d. This viscoelastic flow phenomenon is called die swell effect. The physical reason for such a behaviour is that in the capillary flow of the jet can CHAPTER III 38 viscoelastic fluid an extra stress along the streamlines exists. When the fluid leaves the capillary, these normal stresses in flow direction relax, the fluid contracts in axial direction and expands in radial direction.