By Evangelos G. Giakoumis
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Additional info for Driving and Engine Cycles
16 and the transient of Fig. 3 Fundamentals of Test Cycles 33 adequate to describe the load placed on the engine during acceleration. In contrast, their combination provides perhaps the best measure. RPA is deﬁned as the integral of the product of instantaneous speed and instantaneous positive acceleration over a deﬁned section of the test cycle or route 1 RPA ¼ S Zt VðtÞ Á aðtÞ Á dt ð1:2Þ 0 with V the vehicle speed, a the acceleration, t the duration of the cycle (or the cycle segment) and S the corresponding traveled distance; only positive accelerations are taken into account in Eq.
The most common are [25–27]: • duration of the cycle. • distance covered by the vehicle throughout the test. • average speed (including or excluding idling phases, in which case reference is made of the overall average speed or the average driving speed respectively); average speed is one of the most influential cycle properties, with low values usually indicating more transient cycles, and higher ones highway, thus more steady-state oriented cycles. • maximum speed; following Eq. 1), both average and maximum speeds are the cycle attributes that have the greatest influence on aerodynamic technologies.
In view of that, there is a very strong relation between legislated test and anti-pollution measures or engine/vehicle design in general. For example, incorporating cold starting in the test procedure has proven influential in driving the engine design to stricter antipollution control and the research to lower light-off catalyst temperatures. A driving cycle with high speeds results in higher aerodynamic forces, hence elevated CO2 emissions, initiating the research for better aerodynamic measures.