By Wen-Jun Zhang
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However, the spectral reflectance of water is affected by the presence and concentration of dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic material, and by the depth of the water body (Jensen, 2000). Thus, the intensity and distribution of the radiance upwelling from a water body are indicative of the nature of the dissolved and suspended mater in the water and of the water depth. The peak of the reflectance curve moves to progressively longer wavelengths as concentration of these materials increases.
Sources of assimilate for the grain. Journal of Applied Ecology, 12, 295-318. Buschmann, C. and Nagel, E. 1991. Reflection spectra of terrestrial vegetation as influenced by pigment-protein complexes and the internal optics of the leaf structure. In: Putkonen J, editor. Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS '91). Espoo, Finland, 3-7 June 1991: New York: IEEE. p 1909-1912. Cambell, J. , New York, Guilford Press. , & Gregoire, J. M. 2002a. Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 2.
The atmospheric absorption normally involves absorption of EMR energy at particular wavelengths by certain gases present in the atmosphere. The dominant gases responsible for most of this absorption are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), and depending on atmospheric conditions and the amount of radiation emitted from the surface one of these effects will be dominant. Nevertheless, there are certain spectral domains within the EMR spectrum that are relatively free from the effects of scattering and absorption, known as atmospheric windows.