Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes by Ivan Švancara

By Ivan Švancara

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In general, silicone fluids form carbon pastes with properties very close to those of mixtures from mineral oils; nevertheless, there are also some differences in behavior of these two fundamental types. Besides the already mentioned consistency, the most evident dissimilarity can be seen in resistivity of both types of pastes in media with organic solvents, where silicone fluid–based mixtures exhibited better stability compared to the counterparts made of mineral oils [211]. Note: For instance, a CPE of the C/SO type could be reliably operated in a solution of 2 M H2SO4 containing 25% (v/v) MeOH, when the C/Nj counterpart at identical experimental conditions had already exhibited the extremely high background.

More specifically, such porous p-CPEs can be fabricated by mixing graphite powder, pyrrole (as a monomer actually forming the paste-like mixture), and polystyrene microspheres (as a template). After catalyzed polymerization, the latter is removed to yield the resultant porous structure (with pores of 2–5 μm in diameter). Reportedly [328,331], the surface area of such (n)P-p-CPE is greatly increased (from ca. 10 up to 60 m2 · g−1), benefiting—similarly as for typical CPEs—from an easy and simple preparation (when no binding agents needed), easy preservation and renewal, and mainly form being highly hydrophobic, thus exhibiting a substantial affinity for selective accumulations of lipophilic organic compounds [329].

Again, all this information material is gathered in Chapters 4 and 5 and, then, in Chapter 8, where the individual electroanalytical methods are specified by means of typical data gathered in a series of summarization tables. 1 Diamond as the Electrode Material and Diamond Paste Electrodes Besides natural and synthetic forms of hexagonal graphite, or various new forms of carbon, there is also a cubic allotrope of the same element—diamond. Apart from other differences between the individual forms of carbon, it is well known that the latter is an excellent electric insulator (with resistivity of about 1020 Ω · cm−1 [337]).

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