By Jonas Akerman, David Banister, Karl Dreborg, Peter Nijkamp, Ruggero Schleicher-Tappeser, Dominic Stead, Peter Steen
It's now generally approved that shipping is changing into more and more unsustainable and that powerful coverage intervention is needed to lessen either the expansion in shipping call for and the environmental bills of delivery. This e-book demanding situations traditional methods to move via relocating clear of development dependent research in the direction of using eventualities to spot substitute sustainable delivery futures. It either summaries the improvement of european shipping coverage and offers a critique. The coverage context is widened to incorporate the worldwide adjustments occurring in economics, society and know-how. It develops new methodologies for coverage making for the subsequent 25 years.
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Additional resources for European Transport Policy and Sustainable Mobility (Transport, Development and Sustainability Series)
1996). Another aspect in which public transport systems may be distinguished from individual ones concerns the dependence on supplementary transport systems. Travelling by public transport is intermodal by nature, while individual modes offer door-to-door transport. This makes the functioning of public transport modes dependent on connectivity with other transport systems (including walking and cycling) that offer transport to-and-from nodes. Co-ordination problems between different modes may be an important failure factor in this case.
1 GDP in EU15 countries (1995) (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999). ). 2). Fuel costs are to some extent related to GDP: countries with a lower than average GDP tend to have lower than average fuel costs. There are exceptions, however. In 1995, Luxembourg had the highest GDP per capita of all EU countries but had lower transport fuel costs than almost all other Member States. The highest fuel prices for transport in 1995 were in the Netherlands. The price of fuel increased much faster than the growth in the economy in most European countries.
High car ownership and cheap car travel encourage preferences to live outside urban areas, far from local work, services or facilities, which then adds to the need to travel. Elderly people, who are living longer and more active lives, have a great deal of free time and travel more than ever before. The specialization and centralization of employment is increasing the distances people travel to work. 7 Land use Recent decades have seen the gradual dispersal of population, employment, leisure and retail developments, from central urban areas to outer city locations and to small and medium-sized settlements (Stead, 1999; Stead, 2000).