Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex by Novartis Foundation

By Novartis Foundation

The cerebral cortex is the crowning success of evolution and the organic substrate of human psychological capacities. utilizing a comparative evolutionary developmental method of the research of its beginning is helping to supply new insights into this advanced and critical challenge. The comparability of immature phases unearths gains of evolution which are in a different way obstructed via the complexity of the mature mind, and the research of improvement when it comes to attainable evolutionary occasions is helping us to target the main biologically suitable mechanisms. during this e-book, prime specialists within the fields of mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian mind improvement and from evolutionary biology, take on the basic query of the beginning of the cerebral cortex. The booklet comprises serious examinations of equipment used to review homology within the important worried method and techniques utilized in cladistic research. contemporary information at the earliest generated brief cells within the mammalian, reptilian, avian and amphibian forebrain are mentioned, as are attainable homologies in line with particular connectional research. many of the hypotheses at the foundation of the mammalian isocortex are mentioned intimately and new effects are provided on cortical association in reptiles, birds, marsupials, monotremes and different species.

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If the length of cell cycle in these two Old World primates is comparable, a delay in the onset of the second phase that allows three to four extra rounds of mitosis would result in a 23- to 24-fold increase in founder cells that would generate an eight- to 16-fold larger number of columns, and, therefore, a proportionally larger cortical surface (Fig. 2C, D). In contrast, a 20-day delay in cessation of the second phase in human compared to monkey (El 00 and El 20) would add only about 10 more cells per ontogenetic column.

We have suggested that the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex in primates could be attributed to a change in the genetic mechanisms that control cell production in the ventricular zone and their allocation in the developing cortical plate (Rakic 1988, 1995b). As illustrated in Fig. 2, during the first phase, each round of symmetrical cell divisions could double the number of founder cells, whereas, during the second phase, when asymmetrical divisions begin to predominate, each additional mitotic cycle adds only a single neuron to a given ontogenetic column (Fig.

The unc5h3 mutation suggests that the netrins and their receptors are involved in providing a stop signal to the tangential dimension of the migration of the external granule layer (EGL) cells. If you follow their path in the unc5h3 mutant, you find that they enter the inferior colliculus. We don't know why they go there, nor why they don't migrate caudally into the brainstem. Puelles: In my opinion, this interpretation is too simplistic, because in normal mice there is no direct connection between the cerebellum and the inferior colliculus, the whole isthmus being intercalated in between.

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