Experimentation and measurement by W. J. Youden

By W. J. Youden

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We claim that in most sets of measurements, and without regard to what it is that is being measured, about two out of three measurements will diger from the average by less than one standard deviation. Similarly, about 19 measurements out of 21) will be within two standard deviations of the average. 57 standard deviations. Furthermore, these statements apply to the most varied sorts of measurements, whether they are precise or approximate. This property of the normal error curve is of great value for the interpretation of data.

S8 Table 5. Five ways to place 24 sets of four measurements with reference to the average. 5 24 Observed frequency 7 4 4 3 6 24 (Above the average) (Below the average) TOTAL for 24 measurements (from our data) The hope of complete independence for the readings has not been realized. It seems that if the first reading was high, subsequent readings also tended to be high. The same holds true if the first reading happened to be low. Evidently many of these girls had a particular wav of measuring that persisted throughout all four measurements.

The total collection of 100 determinations is shown in Table 6. 082 per cent of mag42 nesium. One unit in the last place was used as the interval for drawing the histogram in Figure 4. To avoid crowding the scale the intervals are labeled 62, 63, . 063. . 082 shows up like a sort thumb. How can we account for it? Figure 3. Pattern for locating Perhaps the analyst mistest points on cross section of read his instrument. That alloy bar. seems more likely than to assume the existence of a single isolated spot much higher in magnesium than the 49 other spots.

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