By Thomas E. Copeland
This examine evaluates no matter if shock and intelligence failure resulting in mass casualty terrorism are inevitable. It explores the level to which 4 elements disasters of public coverage management, analytical demanding situations, organizational hindrances, and the inherent difficulties of caution info give a contribution to intelligence failure. The research applies latest theories of shock and intelligence failure to case stories of 5 mass casualty terrorism incidents: international exchange middle 1993; Oklahoma urban 1995; Khobar Towers 1996; East African Embassies 1998; and September eleven, 21.
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Additional resources for Fool Me Twice: Intelligence Failure and Mass Casualty Terrorism
Finally, one of the many effects of globalization is the simultaneous empowerment and embitterment of the individual. The individual is empowered by being able not only to communicate with nearly anyone (and recruit them) and with any institution in the world (and threaten it), but also to attack them, often in the form of malicious computer attacks. Embitterment and personal hatred for an adversary no longer require that one belong to the affected class or group of people. Many of the terrorists who took part in the attacks of the 1990s were so-called Afghan Arabs who had fought and trained in Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Bosnia.
64 Breakdowns within the intelligence cycle-from planning to collection to collation to analysis to dissemination-also contribute directly to intelligence failure. " D. UNDERSTANDING MASS CASUALTY TERRORISM, 1993-2001 With those four main factors in mind, we turn finally to the case studies. S. Embassy bombings in east Africa in 1998; and the attacks of September 11, 2001. Several factors influenced the selection of these cases. First, the cases all share a common outcome-a terrorist attack that produced large numbers of casualties.
96. 21 But what Posner highlights is the fundamentally surprising nature of terrorism. With that in mind, we turn to an overview of the terrorist threat as it emerged in the 1990s. B. THE "NEW TERRORISM" 1. Qualitative and Quantitative Changes in the Terrorist Threat Although it is difficult to pinpoint when one trend ceases and a new one begins, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City and the 1995 sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system by the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday sect might be taken as the inaugurating events for a new paradigm of terrorism.