By Joseph Hoy
This booklet is meant for use as either a textual content publication and as an aide memoire instruction manual via forensic radio survey engineers, relatively these operating for legit police businesses. The ebook presents an easy yet targeted assessment of the operation of mobile networks (GSM, UMTS and LTE, US CDMAOne/CDMA2000, among others). additionally, the writer additionally offers an summary of the technical theories that underpin mobile radio platforms – uncomplicated radio concept and a straightforward rationalization of the mathematical suggestions that underlie measurements scales akin to dB and dBm. the most a part of the e-book, even if, specializes in radio surveys, many of the sorts of survey, the ideas hired for every survey and the issues and capability difficulties that may be encountered while surveying forms of community. the ultimate part offers with processing and examining the result of radio surveys and examines the knowledge that may be won from them.
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Extra resources for Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis
The differences between 2G, 3G and 4G network types will be explained in a later section. 4â•… RF Measurements Radio signal strength measurements form the foundation of forensic radio surveying. The unit in which radio signal strengths are measured is the watt (W), although the milliwatt (mW) scale is also commonly used – 1 mW is 1/1000 watt. It is often necessary when taking radio measurements to compare the strength of a signal when it leaves a transmitter to the strength of the signal when it arrives at a receiver.
A simple example of a logarithm is: Log10(100) = 2. A more mathematically rigorous term for ‘power of’ is ‘exponent’. In 102, for example, a number (10) is raised to a power by an exponent (2). 17 Radio Theory The logarithm of 10 (or the base 10 logarithm) required to make 100 is 2 as the exponent that 10 must be raised by to get 100 is 2: = = and conversely log10 (100) 2. 10 2 100 Similarly, Log10(1000) = 3 as 103 = 1000. The real purpose of logarithms is to simplify calculations involving very large and/ or very small numbers and this is due to the mathematical ‘law of powers’.
10. A simple digital modulation scheme would require one type of modulation to represent a ‘1’ and a different type of modulation to represent a ‘0’; each modulation made to a radio carrier is known as a ‘symbol’ and the more modulations or symbols that can be encoded per second, the greater the data rate that can be carrier by a radio service. With two modulations available, each symbol can carry one bit of data: 1 or 0. Modern digital systems use advanced modulation schemes that use more than two modulation types; so if four different modulations (four different amplitude levels, for example) are supported then each change in the radio carrier can be used to carry two bits of data: 00, 01, 10 or 11.