By Anne Ophelia Dowden
Anne Ophelia Dowden meticulously describes and photographs, in full-color
paintings and beautiful black-and-white drawings, the fantastic number of
fruits made by way of flowering plants.
Using specimens she has amassed from around the world, she explains
how fertilization happens, how seeds are produced, and the way flora mature
into end result. listed here are over one hundred fifty fruit forms—from dry seed pods equivalent to the
lily and milkweed, with its tufted seeds, to hard-shelled nuts like hickory
and acorn, and the prevalent fleshy end result of the cherry, blackberry, cucum
ber, and fig.
Ms. Dowden's minutely distinct illustrations and lucid, exact textual content exhibit
the elaborate internal strategies of existence in its such a lot elemental seen shape.
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Additional info for From Flower to Fruit
Some- the centers of their backs, as in as in campion, they separate only so that the fruits look like little at vases with small openings at the top through which the seeds can be shaken out. The poppy under the edges of its fruit has very small holes hidden cap (the remains of the stigma), and tiny black seeds escape through these holes like grains a saltshaker. MOUNTAIN LAUREL Ripe fruit \ \ W Ripe fruit VELVETLEAF ^^' its from CAPSULES WHITE CAMPION POPPY ^--^^ THE PYXIS SCARLET PIMPERNEL Calyx PURSLANE All these multicarpel fruits, in spite of their variations, are called capsules.
In beggar-ticks, that calyx develops into several barbed spikes. Still another flower part forms the spiny burr of burdock and cocklebur — the involucre , a cup of tiny leaves or scales that surrounds the flower head in every member of the daisy family. In burdock, the involucre almost completely encloses the achenes, and the sharp barbs on extremely Some efficient means of its scales are an distributing them. nonsplitting fruits could not possibly be distinguished from achenes, or even from bare seeds, by anyone who did not know caryopsis carp has ) their inner structure.
It re- sponds to moisture, uncoiling when wet and re-coiling tightly when dry, and thus it actually screws the fruit into the fur of animals or, eventually, plants it firmly in the ground. Sometimes a whole plant becomes an agent of distribution. Several species of bedstraw are called cleavers because their stems and leaves are covered with tiny hooked catch 28 on —cleave — anything to that passes, hairs. They and pieces of the plant are broken off and carried away. The tumbleweeds of the west, which have evolved in dry, open country, break from their roots and seeds as they go.