Fundamentals of Infrared Detector Materials (SPIE Tutorial by Michael A. Kinch

By Michael A. Kinch

The alternative of accessible infrared (IR) detectors for insertion into glossy IR structures is either huge and complicated. the aim of this quantity is to supply a technical database from which rational IR detector choice standards evolve, and hence make clear the choices open to the trendy IR procedure dressmaker. Emphasis concentrates frequently on high-performance IR platforms working in a tactical atmosphere, even supposing there is also dialogue of either strategic environments and occasional- to medium-performance approach requirements.

Contents

- Introduction
- IR Detector functionality Criteria
- IR Detector fabrics: A expertise Comparison
- Intrinsic Direct Bandgap Semiconductors
- HgCdTe: fabric of selection for Tactical Systems
- Uncooled Detection
- HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiodes (EAPDs)
- destiny HgCdTe Developments
- Epilogue
- Appendix: Mathcad application for HgCdTe Diode darkish present Modeling
- References
- Index

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Additional resources for Fundamentals of Infrared Detector Materials (SPIE Tutorial Text Vol. TT76) (Tutorial Texts)

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3 Auger1 and depletion dark current density vs. 25 eV. 4 (a) τn , τp , τA7 vs. 030 eV from the conduction band and a hole concentration due to vacancies of 1016 cm−3 and (b) the dependence of these lifetimes on the hole concentration associated with vacancies at 77 K. large S-R generated depletion current component in InSb photodiodes, associated with its relatively short lifetime. The assumption of Auger1 limited performance for HgCdTe is thus valid at higher temperatures. 2 p-Type For minority carriers in p-HgCdTe, a careful distinction must be drawn between extrinsically and vacancy-doped material and any combination of these p-type dopants.

Early values for both n-type and p-type superlattices with a variety of cutoff wavelengths were <20 ns. However, values by the GE group [48] are more in keeping with accepted Auger band-to-band recombination theory as applied to superlattices, at relatively high temperatures, for cutoff wavelengths in the 4−15 µm cutoff wavelength range. 2−20 µs are obtained for n-type superlattices at 77 K. Smaller lifetime values are obtained for p-type superlattices at 77 K with stronger evidence of Shockley–Read effects.

The effect is strongly orientation dependent, being zero for [001] and a maximum for the [111] growth direction. The magnitude of the effect is determined by the degree of lattice mismatch and the values of the elastic moduli and piezoelectric coefficients for HgTe and CdTe. 031 C/m2 . 1% of lattice mismatch. This value should exert a negligible effect on the electronic wavefunctions of the superlattice, but it may need to be considered in the performance of diode devices fabricated in the material.

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