Handbook of Income Distribution, Volume 1 by Anthony B. Atkinson, F. Bourguignon

By Anthony B. Atkinson, F. Bourguignon

Distributional concerns would possibly not have continuously been one of the major matters of the commercial occupation. this day, first and foremost of the 2000s, the location is assorted. over the past zone of a century, fiscal progress proved to be unsteady and particularly gradual on general. the location of these on the backside ceased to enhance frequently as within the previous quick progress and full-employment interval. Europe has obvious lengthy unemployment and there was widening salary dispersion in a couple of OECD nations. emerging affluence in wealthy international locations coexists, in a couple of such international locations, with the patience of poverty. for this reason, it's tough these days to consider a topic score excessive within the public financial debate with out a few powerful specific distributive implications. financial coverage, financial coverage, taxes, financial or alternate union, privatisation, rate and pageant rules, the way forward for the Welfare nation are all matters that are now usually perceived as conflictual due to their powerful redistributive content material.

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2: Measurement of Inequality f(x) iI _ __ _ _-__ _ _ _ _ _ _ x xo Fig. 6. Income growth at xO. , xi - ... , x +-, . , xn). 19 In addition to these principles, a large number of theoretical and empirical studies explicitly invoke additional axioms which may be motivated by principles of economic welfare or considerations of structure within the space of income distributions. The principal welfare axiom that bears upon distributional rankings may be expressed as: * Monotonicity. G >-w F if distribution G can be obtained from F by a rightward translation of some probability mass-see Fig.

99 Ch. 2: Measurement of Inequality f(x) iI _ __ _ _-__ _ _ _ _ _ _ x xo Fig. 6. Income growth at xO. , xi - ... , x +-, . , xn). 19 In addition to these principles, a large number of theoretical and empirical studies explicitly invoke additional axioms which may be motivated by principles of economic welfare or considerations of structure within the space of income distributions. The principal welfare axiom that bears upon distributional rankings may be expressed as: * Monotonicity. G >-w F if distribution G can be obtained from F by a rightward translation of some probability mass-see Fig.

In the context of the Irene and Janet approach to distribution this principle can be represented thus: consider an arbitrary distribution XA := (l, ... , xi, . , xj . , x,) and a number such that 0 < 16 See, for example, Cowell (1995: p. 56). This axiom is sometimes invoked also for welfare and poverty comparisons. The consistency of inequality comparisons across distributions with differing populations is discussed in Salas (1998). 17 See, for example, Atkinson (1970, 1983), Cowell (1995) and Sen (1973).

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