By Alain C. Diebold
Containing greater than three hundred equations and approximately 500 drawings, images, and micrographs,
this reference surveys key parts corresponding to optical measurements and in-line calibration tools. It describes cleanroom-based size know-how used throughout the manufacture of silicon built-in circuits and covers model-based, serious measurement, overlay, acoustic movie thickness, dopant dose, junction intensity, and electric measurements; particle and illness detection; and flatness following chemical mechanical sharpening. offering examples of well-developed metrology strength, the publication makes a speciality of metrology for lithography, transistor, capacitor, and on-chip interconnect method applied sciences.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology
Ellipsometry has been widely used to determine the thickness and the index of refraction of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited (PECVD) oxynitride antireﬂective layers. Variation of the deposition parameters has been correlated with changes in the optical properties of the ﬁlms (36–43). The oxide-to-nitride ratio, hydrogen content, and amount of excess Si have all been shown to affect the index of refraction. Except for highly constrained experiments, therefore, care should be taken in drawing conclusions about ﬁlm stoichiometry based upon the index of refraction.
These physically unrealistic results are due to a very high correla- Gate Dielectric Metrology 29 Figure 2 Goodness-of-ﬁt for bulk and variable-refractive-index (oxide þ void) models. tion between the ﬁt variables. 990 for the 100-A˚ oxide. Thus, the variables are not independent for ultrathin oxides, and the regression routines are unable to distinguish between the effects of the variables. Other variable-index singlelayer models, including a BEMA mixture of oxide and amorphous silicon and a variableoscillator-number-density model, yielded essentially the same unrealistic results for oxide thickness.
Other parameters are speciﬁed as ‘‘unknown’’; and their values will be calculated. The ‘‘unknowns’’ are often given starting values in the ﬁlm recipe. The calculation method (or regression) consists of varying the values of the ‘‘unknown’’ thicknesses and selected dispersion model parameters in the equations, until the best possible ﬁt is obtained between the theoretical and measured spectra. A good ﬁt and realistic nðlÞ and kðlÞ spectra indicate that the obtained parameter values are accurate.