By Dorothy Porter
This publication examines the social, fiscal and political problems with public well-being provision in historic viewpoint. It outlines the improvement of public healthiness in Britain, Continental Europe and the us from the traditional international via to the trendy kingdom. It contains dialogue of:
* pestilence, public order and morality in pre-modern times
* the Enlightenment and its effects
* centralization in Victorian Britain
* localization of overall healthiness care within the United States
* inhabitants concerns and family members welfare
* the increase of the vintage welfare state
* attitudes in the direction of public future health into the twenty-first century.
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Additional info for Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times
For Muslims the plague was the will of God, but for Christians it was the wrath of God, divine retribution for the sinfulness of men. Plague thus stimulated ever more elaborate POPULATION, HEALTH AND PRE-MODERN STATES 33 rituals of Christian penance, such as a new cult of public flagellation (Camporasi, 1988). Beginning in Italy but later throughout Europe, little processions of flagellants whipped themselves in public and preached repentance. Pope Clement VI denounced them as heretical because of their radically critical view of the Church.
But various municipalities claimed to have been at least partially responsible for ensuring the water supply, such as Dublin, Basel and Bruges. Municipalities attempted to limit pollution of drinking water by preventing citizens from throwing dead animals or refuse into streams and rivers. Tanners were not permitted to wash animal skins and dyers were prohibited from emptying their dye residues into drinking water sources. By the late middle ages, municipal sanitary regulations covered street cleaning, refuse removal and restrictions on the slaughter of animals.
Scholastic medicine in the late middle ages was almost entirely derivative of the classical tradition, the only innovative influence coming from Islamic theory (Ottosson, 1984). But the institutionalization of medical education imposed a new professional structure on practice. Medical men trained in the universities were the first to attain the title ‘doctor’ and they established new professional guilds and associations. All university-trained physicians were clerics, and thus when the Council of Tours declared in 1163 that ‘the church does not shed blood’, surgery was relegated to a manual craft practised by barbers and other craftsmen (Amundsen, 1979; Allbutt, 1905).