By P. D. Dunn, D. A. Reay
A complete, updated insurance of the idea, layout and manufacture of warmth pipes and their functions. This most recent version has been completely revised, up-dated and multiplied to provide an in-depth insurance of the hot advancements within the box. major new fabric has been extra to all of the chapters and the functions part has been completely rewritten to make sure that topical and demanding functions are safely emphasized. The bibliography has been significantly enlarged to include a lot priceless new info. hence readers of the former variation, which has confirmed itself because the normal textual content at the topic, will locate a lot extra facts of curiosity while new readers will locate the enormous quantity of priceless information integrated within the appendices an vital resource of reference.
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Extra resources for Heat Pipes
R is positive in the evaporator section and negative in the condensing section. 1 to 100. r R^ is related to the radial rate of mass injection or removal per unit length dm as follows dz 1 dm 2TT|J dz v .. 1 The radial and axial Reynold's numbers are related for uniform evaporation or condensation rates, by the equation, R r R = -± ... 2 r 4 z where z is the distance from either the end of the evaporator section or the end of the condenser section. 4, that provided the flow is laminar, the pressure drop due to viscous forces in a length I is equal to the kinetic head when 38 Dunn & Reay R a * " 32 R r " 32 If we substitute 4R I for the evaporator or condenser region we find that the condition reduces to R r = 8 ...
TV £ v — Lr = 2a„T £ p Lr v 2 8 2 '* * ' ° * z K z The mechanism of bubble formation depends strongly on the wetting characteristics of the heating surface. 4. 26a. Bubbles form most readily if the surface is nonwetting. In addition to wetting nucleation sites are necessary for bubble formation. Nucleation sites are provided by scratched or rough surfaces and by the release of absorbed gas. 26b shows how a bubble forms in a crevasse in a surface. As might be expected a much higher superheat is required to form bubbles on a clean, smooth surface.
4 B o i l i n g from wicked s u r f a c e s . There is now a considerable litera ture on boiling from wicked surfaces. The work reported includes measurements on plane surfaces and on tubes, the heated surfaces can be horizontal or vertical, and either totally immersed in the liquid or evaporating in the heat pipe mode. Water, organics and liquid metals have all been investigated. The effect of the wick is to further complicate the boiling process since in addition to the factors referred to in the section on boiling from smooth surfaces the wick provides sites for additional nucleation and significantly modifies the movement of the liquid and vapour phases to and from the heated surface.