Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and by John E. Ayers

By John E. Ayers

Heteroepitaxy has developed swiftly in recent times. With every one new wave of material/substrate combos, our knowing of ways to regulate crystal development turns into extra sophisticated. such a lot books at the topic concentrate on a selected fabric or fabric kinfolk, narrowly explaining the techniques and methods applicable for every. Surveying the foundations universal to all kinds of semiconductor fabrics, Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: thought, progress, and Characterization is the 1st entire, primary creation to the sphere.

This booklet displays our present realizing of nucleation, development modes, leisure of strained layers, and dislocation dynamics with out emphasizing any specific fabric. Following an outline of the houses of semiconductors, the writer introduces the $64000 heteroepitaxial development equipment and offers a survey of semiconductor crystal surfaces, their constructions, and nucleation. With this starting place, the e-book offers in-depth descriptions of mismatched heteroepitaxy and lattice pressure leisure, quite a few characterization instruments used to observe and assessment the expansion strategy, and at last, illness engineering ways. various examples spotlight the recommendations whereas large micrographs, schematics of experimental setups, and graphs illustrate the dialogue.

Serving as a superb start line for this swiftly evolving region, Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: thought, progress, and Characterization makes the foundations of heteroepitaxy simply available to somebody getting ready to go into the sphere.

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Extra info for Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization

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The most important physical property is the surface free energy, defined as the reversible work done to create new surface area. The surface free energies have been determined experimentally for only a few semiconductor crystals. In cases for which such data are available, the experimental errors are often quite large. These follow from the difficulties involved in surface free energy determinations. Most such efforts have involved the use of a fracture technique with natural cleavage planes. In these experiments, a precursor crack is introduced either by a steel wedge (double-cantilever beam method63) or by an explosive electrical spark discharge (electrical spark discharge method64).

2 Other types of slip systems have rarely been observed in zinc blende a semiconductors. V-shaped dislocations on 110 {011} slip systems have 2 been found in heteroepitaxial layers. Chu and Nakahara70 observed dislocaa tions on an 100 {100} slip system in InGaAsP/InP (001). Cooman and 2 Carter71 reported dislocations on {100} slip planes in GaAs. In degraded zinc blende laser diode structures, numerous workers have identified dislocations a a on 100 {100} and 100 {100} slip systems, which appear to be associated 2 2 with the dark line defects (DLDs).

The Poisson ratio and the Young’s modulus may also be used in heteroepitaxy as long as their dependence on the crystal direction is taken into account. 34 In these experiments ultrasonic pulses are generated in the crystal by a quartz transducer. The pulse traverses the crystal, is reflected by the back face, and returns. From the time elapsed the velocity of propagation is determined. The measurement of three different wave modes allows calculation of all three unique elastic constants for a cubic crystal.

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