Historical & Conceptual Issues in Psychology by Marc Brysbaert

By Marc Brysbaert

The second variation of ancient and Conceptual matters in Psychology bargains a full of life and interesting advent to the most concerns underlying the emergence and carrying on with evolution of psychology.

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Written records form an external memory, which allows an accumulation of knowledge. ■ For a long time the number of readers was limited. In addition, they were not encouraged to think critically about what they were reading (scholastic method). 3 What do you think? Is the current emphasis on ‘critical thinking’ exaggerated? Is it possible to think critically without first knowing the facts? The discovery of numbers Another development that has been crucial for the growth of science is the discovery of numbers.

As these were the elements in Aristotle’s philosophy that attracted the scholars, other disagreements were soon to follow. By 1277 the Catholic bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier, already had a list of 219 propositions related to Aristotelian philosophy that he forbad to be taught at the University of Paris. A cultural movement based on imitation of the Greek and Roman civilisations Renaissance cultural movement from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century based on a rediscovery and imitation of the classical Greek and Roman civilisations The availability of the ancient texts not only influenced scientists but also society as a whole.

There people started to work with nine different symbols to represent the numbers one to nine. In addition, they used the place of the symbols in the digit string to represent powers of 10. The first digit represented the units, the second digit the tens, the third digit the hundreds, and so on. So, ‘thirty-two’ no longer consisted of two vertical lines to represent the two units and three symbols of ten to represent the 30, but became a symbol of 2 in the units position and a symbol of 3 in the tens position.

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