Il Secondo Cervello by Michael D. Gershon

By Michael D. Gershon

Note: it really is marked "Retailed" because it is a complimentary replica after buy of the paper format.

«Sappiamo che, in keeping with quanto il concetto possa apparire inadeguato, il sistema gastroenterico è dotato di un cervello. Lo sgradevole intestino è più intellettuale del cuore e potrebbe avere una capacità ““emozionale”” superiore. È il solo organo a contenere un sistema nervoso intrinseco in grado di mediare i riflessi in completa assenza di enter dal cervello o dal midollo spinale. L’’evoluzione ci ha giocato uno scherzetto. […] Il sistema nervoso enterico è una curiosità, un residuo che abbiamo conservato dal nostro passato evolutivo. Di certo, non pare qualcosa che possa attirare l’’interesse di tutti, invece dovrebbe. L’’evoluzione è un revisore potente. Le parti del corpo futili o non assolutamente necessarie hanno poche possibilità di farcela a superare le difficoltà della selezione naturale. Tuttavia, un sistema nervoso enterico è stato presente in ciascuno dei nostri predecessori nel corso dei milioni di anni di storia dell’’evoluzione che ci separa dal primo animale dotato di spina dorsale. Quindi, il sistema nervoso enterico deve essere più di una reliquia. Il sistema nervoso enterico è, di fatto, un centro di elaborazione dati moderno e pieno di vita, che ci consente di portare a termine alcuni compiti molto importanti e spiacevoli senza alcuno sforzo mentale.»

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It also uses cutoffs for “heavy drinking” of 28 drinks per week for women and 35 for men. As the authors state, these cutoffs are based on previous surveys of cognitive effects from alcohol rather than strict biological criteria. Furthermore, it acknowledges the possibility that multiple pathologies may be present, and incorporates some neuroimaging details, such as cortical atrophy or atrophy of the cerebellum, especially the cerebellar vermis, into the proposed criteria. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AD is the most common form of dementia, accounting for an estimated 65–75% of cases of dementia, especially in aged individuals.

Rett’s Disorder A disorder primarily affecting females, the genetic basis of Rett’s disorder is being unraveled, and genetic testing may supplant clinical criteria. A more detailed listing of diagnostic criteria is listed in Chapter 7. It is included here because Rett’s syndrome, aside from its genetic roots, is often classified among the autistic spectrum disorders, at least according to the standard DSM-IV scheme. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder The roots of this diagnosis may be traced back to Heller, who, in 1908, described several cases he termed dementia infantalis.

Alcohol as a Contributing Factor in the Development or Course of Dementia The designation of alcohol as a contributing factor is used for the situation in which alcohol is used, but not to the degree required or within the time required to meet the classification of probable or possible alcohol-related dementia. This designation should not preclude the use of probable vascular dementia or dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Adapted from Oslin D, Atkinson RM, Smith DM, Hendrie H. Alcohol related dementia: proposed clinical criteria.

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