By Kwang W. Jeon
Foreign overview of Cytology offers present advances and complete reports in phone biology - either plant and animal. Authored via a number of the prime scientists within the box, each one quantity offers updated info and instructions for destiny examine. Articles during this quantity comprise Mechanisms of Gradient Detection: A comparability of Axon Pathfinding with Eukaryotic telephone Migration; Leptin and the law of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis; Focal Adhesion and p53 Signaling in melanoma Cells; telephone and Molecular Biology of the Spindle Matrix; Mitochondrial Biology and illness in Dictyostelium; Oxytocin and the Human Prostate in future health and disorder.
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Additional resources for International Review of Cytology, Vol. 263
Notably, the described Ca2þ/cAMP switch was proven to be physiologically relevant and regulates different responses to a single guidance factor in vivo. In the nervous system, the cAMP level of a neuronal growth cone depends on substrate-specific signals and/or the developmental stage. When growing on poly-D-lysine or fibronectin, Xenopus retinal growth cones have high intracellular cAMP levels and show attractive turning toward netrin-1. , 1999). The bifunctionality of MAG is developmentally regulated in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.
When growing out on basal levels of repellent membranes, growth cones travel up the gradient for an additional fixed increment of concentration, indicating a certain adaptation mechanism. In contrast to diffusible gradients, substrate-bound gradients are far more complicated to fabricate in vitro. In gradients of membrane material, it is difficult to quantify the exact amount of a single protein and exclude the influence of other components. , 2005). To obtain highly reproducible and long-lasting graded distributions of purified ephrinA5, microcontact printing proved to be a useful technique.
CAMP levels act like a switch determining whether the response to a Ca2þ-dependent guidance factor is attractive or repulsive. BDNF, Ach, or netrin-1 gradients, which normally induce attractive turning of Xenopus growth cones by high local Ca2þ elevation, lead at the same time to an intracellular increase of cAMP. , 1997). , 1998). A repulsive gradient of MAG induces an intracellular Ca2þ elevation in the shape of a gradient with the highest Ca2þ on the gradient near side of the growth cone. However, this graded elevation of Ca2þ is about half of that associated with the attractive turning induced by a netrin-1 gradient.