By Bertel Laurent

The speculation of relativity is tackled at once during this booklet, allotting with the necessity to determine the insufficiency of Newtonian mechanics. This publication takes virtue from the beginning of the geometrical nature of the relativity concept. The reader is believed to be accustomed to vector calculus in usual third-dimensional Euclidean house. The booklet relies heading in the right direction fabric added at Stockholm college over a five-year interval, and is meant to be of use to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars in astrophysics and astronomy.

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**Extra resources for Introduction to spacetime: a first course on relativity**

**Example text**

Whichever you use you find the same point P2 as simultaneous with P . 2) determines the vector uniquely. In case you don't believe this you may read the following formal proof. The vector f has the following properties: 1. Its foot is on the observer world line. 2. Its head is at the event P . 3. 2)). 2. 39 Let us introduce two vectors F1 and 1'2 which both satisfy these conditions and show that the two vectors must be equal. 2) for each one of them we obtain two equations which we subtract obtaining V * (F2 - 1'1) = 0.

The proper times of all the vectors and the number a can be determined by clock readings. Obviously or C = a A - B. 2. SCALAR PRODUCT 27 c . c = ( a A - B ) . (aA - B ) ( a A - B ) . B = a A . a A - a A . B + B . A - 2aA. B +B . B. 7) That is - - A B 1 -2a [a2A * A +B * B - C C]. 8) - Thus we see that the scalar product A B at least in principle can be calculated from the readings of clocks. It should be made clear that there is a physical content in the mere existence of a scalar product. g. 9) which contains only squares of vectors and therefore only proper times.

0 0 0 As long as we don’t give values to the scalar products the algebra in spacetime is the same as in Euclidean space. We can therefore often use the same equations as those obtained from a Euclidean figure. Symmetries in a spacetime situation can sometimes be very nicely represented in a Euclidean figure. There are certain insights to be gained from a qualitative comparison between a spacetime situation and a Euclidean one. An example is given below. 2. 3: Euclidean figure. The distances AB and ACB are measured by cars.