Laser-Tissue Interactions: Fundamentals and Applications by Markolf H. Niemz

By Markolf H. Niemz

Medical practitioners, scientists and graduate scholars alike will locate this exhaustive survey a necessary studying device. It presents an intensive description of the basics and functions within the box of laser-tissue interactions. easy ideas corresponding to the optical and thermal houses of tissue, some of the sorts of tissue ablation, and optical breakdown and its similar results are taken care of intimately. the writer will pay certain awareness to mathematical instruments (Monte Carlo simulations, the Kubelka-Munk conception etc.) and authorized suggestions (photodynamic remedy, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy etc.). a piece on functions experiences clinically suitable tools in sleek medication utilizing the newest references.

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Type of tissue, laser wavelength, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, attenuation coefficient, coefficient of anisotropy, reference, and the applied theoretical method are listed. Additional data can be found in a review paper published by Cheong et al. (1990). 7 Coagulation is a thermal effect which is very useful for many types of surgery, especially in laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), ophthalmology, and angioplasty. Further information is given in the Sects. 6. 42 2.

1 In the literature, the terms used for radiometric parameters such as fiuence, irradiance, intensity, and energy dose are often somewhat confusing. Throughout this book, the following agreements are met: power is expressed in units of W, energy in units of 1, the synonyms power density, intensity, and irradiance in units of W /cm 2 , the synonyms energy density, fiuence, and radiant exposure in units of 1/cm 2 , and energy dose in units of 1/cm3 (see also the Appendix). 46 3. Interaction Mechanisms This is surprising, since the power density itself varies over 15 orders of magnitude!

43) where Id is the diffuse intensity, and the vector flux F d is determined by Fd(r) = J Jd(r, s) s dw . 4 .. The first two terms of the expansion expressed by Eq . 43) constitute the diffusion approximation . 44) where ",2 is the diffusion parameter, and Q represents the source of scattered photons . It was shown by Ishimaru (1978) that 32 2. Light and Matter ",2 =3a[a+a s (1-g)] , Q = 3a s(at + ga) Fo exp( -d) , with the incident flux amplitude Fo and the optical depth d as determined by Eq.

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