Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Physical Techniques by Abraham Katzir

By Abraham Katzir

The expanding use of fiber optics within the box of drugs has created a necessity for an interdisciplinary viewpoint of the know-how and techniques for physicians in addition to engineers and biophysicists. This booklet provides a finished exam of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier process. each one bankruptcy is split into 3 simple sections: the Fundamentals part presents an summary of easy strategies and historical past; the Principles part deals an in-depth engineering procedure; and the Advances part beneficial properties particular details on structures and biophysical parameters. All these attracted to the fields of lasers and fiber optics will locate this publication interesting and instructive examining.

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Delivering laser light to tissue is at least as difficult as producing the light in the first place. ) C 0 laser connected to an operating microscope via an articulated arm. (Courtesy 2 gineer at the factory, physicians, technicians, and nurses who operate the laser equipment should also understand the basic principles underlying the delivery and control of laser beams. A few points on the laser beam itself are appropriate at this stage. Gaussian Beam A possible misconception must be dealt with at this stage in order to alleviate any later confusion.

The Kr laser is similar to the Ar laser, but it is based on ionized krypton gas. This laser has numerous emission lines in the UV and visible spectral range. 5 nm. 1 nm (red). The efficiency of the Kr laser ( and the power output ) is lower than that of the Ar laser. The power output is normally less than 1 W in each of the prominent lines. 10 Helium-Cadmium (HeCd) Lasers This laser is similar in structure to the HeNe laser but the gas used is a mixture of helium (He) and ionized cadmium (Cd). In principle, this is a metal vapor laser.

This is actually the value which should be used in Eq. 1). 3a) 0 2w(z) - (2/ir)(\z/w ). 3b) 0 It can be shown that for the diverging beam Θ, half the angle of divergence, is given by the equation θ = (2/ττ)(λ/2νν ). 4) 0 This is shown schematically in Fig. 10 Gaussian laser beam: divergence. 2 LASER PHYSICS 31 the full divergence angle is 2Θ. We can approximate 4 ~ ττ and thus write the equation 2Θ - (4/tt)(X/2w ) 0 (λ/2νν ). 5) 0 This is similar to the classical formula describing the divergence of light through an aperture of diameter 2w .

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