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Additional info for Lessons In Electric Circuits, AC
How is it possible to obtain a total voltage of just over 36 volts with 15 volt, 12 volt, and 22 volt supplies connected in series? With DC, this would be impossible, as voltage figures will either directly add or subtract, depending on polarity. But with AC, our “polarity” (phase shift) can vary anywhere in between full-aiding and full-opposing, and this allows for such paradoxical summing. What if we took the same circuit and reversed one of the supply’s connections? 40) 22 V ∠ -64o Polarity reversed on source E2 !
MORE ON AC “POLARITY” 47 the total voltage, so we add 24 volts to -17 volts to obtain 7 volts: still the correct answer. If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage figures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage figures in our calculations, the result will always be correct. Again, the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage figures’ mathematical signs in proper context.
When we measure a voltage, we have a choice in how we connect a voltmeter or other voltage-measuring instrument to the source of voltage, as there are two points between which the voltage exists, and two test leads on the instrument with which to make connection. In DC circuits, we denote the polarity of voltage sources and voltage drops explicitly, using “+” and “-” symbols, and use color-coded meter test leads (red and black). If a digital voltmeter indicates a negative DC voltage, we know that its test leads are connected “backward” to the voltage (red lead connected to the “-” and black lead to the “+”).