Motion Planning in Medicine: Optimization and Simulation by Ron Alterovitz

By Ron Alterovitz

The monograph written via Ron Alterovitz and Ken Goldberg combines principles from robotics, physically-based modeling, and operations examine to improve new movement making plans and optimization algorithms for image-guided scientific strategies. A problem clinicians ordinarily face is compensating for blunders brought on by gentle tissue deformations that happen while imaging units or surgical instruments bodily touch gentle tissue. a couple of equipment are awarded that are utilized to quite a few clinical systems, from biopsies to anaesthesia injections to radiation melanoma therapy. they could even be prolonged to handle difficulties open air the context of clinical robotics, together with nonholonomic movement making plans for cellular robots in box or production environments.

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These parameters can be selected, within limits, by the physician to improve placement accuracy. This model allows us to produce an interactive simulation and analyze the sensitivity of current medical methods to these parameters [16, 17, 19]. 1 Background on Needle Insertion Modeling and Simulation Abolhassani et al. provide a survey of models and simulations of needle insertion [3]. Simulating needle insertion requires a model of the forces exerted by the needle on soft tissue. Okamura, Simone, and O’Leary measured needle insertion forces during robot-assisted percutaneous therapy and separated the forces into distinct components: tissue stiffness forces, a cutting force at the needle tip, and frictional forces along the needle shaft [168, 194].

Each needle is fully retracted before the next is inserted. Hence, we assume each needle insertion and seed implantation procedure is independent. Unlike needles, we assume seeds do not cut tissue. Hence, a seed will move only when the surrounding tissue deforms, which satisfies our assumption that an implant moves with the surrounding deforming tissue. Also, a metal block containing approximately 50 holes at fixed coordinates is used by the physician to guide each needle during brachytherapy needle insertion.

The ultrasound image also served as the texture map image for the simulator. The boundary of the mesh is defined by a square for which the right face (where the needle is inserted) is free, the bottom face corresponding the trans-rectal ultrasound probe is rigid, and the other two faces are also marked rigid. The Young’s modulus E and Poisson ratio ν are set based on the results of Krouskop et al. 49 for the surrounding fatty tissue [126]. Needle properties are treated as variables that can be set in the user interface of the simulation.

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