Muscular Systems of Vertebrates (Biological Systems in by Seth M. Kisia

By Seth M. Kisia

An account of the several morphologies of vertebrate breathing organs and buildings. It explains the essence of alternative useful designs and methods that experience adaptively constructed for the purchase of molecular oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. The origins of a few of the breathing structures are offered and debated from evolutionary, phylogenetic, behavioural and ecological views. The e-book conscientiously outlines the interactions among the surroundings (the actual realm) and evolution and model (the organic area) that experience set the composition and patterning of extant animal existence.

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They are situated mainly around the humerus. Members include: l Brachialis l Biceps brachii l Triceps brachii l Anconeus l Tensor fasciae antebrachii The last three muscles in this group are extensors of the elbow joint. 44 MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES (xvi) Rotators of the forearm This group of muscles rotates the radius and ulna resulting into supination and pronation. In species where movements between radius and ulna are limited, these muscles are rudimentary. Included in this group are; (a) Supinators: Brachioradialis Supinator (b) Pronators: Pronator quadratus Pronator teres (xvii) Muscles of the carpal joint These are long slender muscles causing extension and flexion of the carpal joint.

The arrector pili muscle is associated with hair and causes erection of individual hairs when it is cold, thereby improving insulation of the body by trapping air. g. the muscles of mastication, are well developed in mammals and allow sideways movement of the jaws in many mammalian species. Related to these muscles during evolution is the tensor tympani from the adductor mandibularis. The cutaneous musculature of the face (mimetic muscles), derived mainly from surficial sheets of hyoid musculature and spread on the face, is particularly well developed in carnivores and primates, especially man.

Since most vertebrate muscles are activated in an “all-or-none” manner, either fully switched on or switched off with no part activation, variation in contractile force occurs as a result of the recruitment of different members of motor units. The number of fibers supplied by a motor neuron depends on the type of movements performed by each muscle. The fewer the number of fibers supplied by a motor neuron, as in the extraocular muscles of the eye of vertebrates and hand muscles in primates, the more precise the movements such muscles produce.

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