Petrology of the Ocean Floor by R. Hekinian

By R. Hekinian

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This type of rock is generally deprived of Cr-spinel, with the exception of a spinel with scarce chromite which was noticed near 36"N (Atlantic Ocean) and on the East Pacific Rise. The POPB from the East Pacific Rise are generally more fractionated than their counterparts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 6) than Mid-Atlantic Ridge volcanics (Table 1-8, see also Table 2-11 and Fig. 2-34). The olivine basalts differ from the POPB and MPPB in their relative abundance of olivine phenocrysts (1-4%) and their relative depletion of the plagioclase phenocryst-microphenocryst association (<1%)(Figs.

The oceanic andesites are quartz-normative rock (quartz = 8-1276) (see Chapter 3). Andesites similar t o those found on the ocean floor TABLE 1-16 Microprobe analyses of pyroxene and plagioclase from oceanic andesite recovered o n the Ninety-East Ridge (Indian Ocean). %) Alp3 FeO MnO MgO CaO NazO KlO Ti02 Cr203 P Total wo En Fs tr. = trace. 13 - tr. 49 tr. tr. - 49 TABLE 1-17 Average composition of seven andesites from the Ninety-East Ridge (Leg 22, Site 214; Hbkinian, 1974a; G. , 1978) and one andesite from St.

For example, the East Pacific Rise is seen on the surface of the Gulf of California as a system of complicated fracture zones. Recent volcanic activity related t o crustal spreading is also found in the Afar and in the Ethiopian rift system, which is the surface expression of the Mid-Indian Oceanic Ridge. In the Gulf of Tadjoura (Red Sea), the ridge system enters the Afar forming the rift system of Ardoukoba. Here it bifurcates, one branch extending north t o the Gulf of Suez and Aqaba, the Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley, and the other branch extending south to the great east African rift valleys.

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