Pflanzenreich mez theophrastaceae by A. Engler

By A. Engler

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E) The reflux is unevenly distributed initially. Hence we have: maldistribution = channelling + wall flow. Wall flow depends on both separating length and column diameter. With a ratio of dK/dpKR= 20 a fixed wall flow of 10 to 20% is established, which in turn is influenced by the ratio of separating length to column diameter. The relative effect of maldistribution is the greater the more separating stages a column has. A maldistribution of, say, 10% reduces the plate number of a column with 100 plates to 30 while a column of 10 plates is only reduced to 9.

15). The limiting states in the separation of binary inixtures as affected by disturbances and possibilities of removing or diminishing the latter have been examined by Wunsch [lll]. He concludes that the enthalpy coinposition diagram may provide important information about the disturbing behaviour of separating units. 3 Miscibility of the components Experience tells us that the solubility of liquids is the higher the more closely the snbstancea are related chemically (homologous series). Regularities occurring in the iiiixing of organic compounds have been tabulated by Staudinger [ 121.

The lat'ter were introduced by Ilges, who first utilized spheres as packing material in 1873. Reviewing what has heensaid above, we realize that the hasic principles of distillation were already known in antiquity and in the middle ages, in spite of the simple equipment then availahle. Vntil the middle of the 19th century, laboratory and semi- Fig. 16e) Von Rechenberg's V U C U I I ~distillation apparatus (1920) with Hempel column and Bertrend receiver Fig. 16h) Elsner's rectifier for normal pressurg and vacuum (1920) technical apparatus differ in their dimensions only.

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