By Bruno Gaiddon, Henk Kaan, Donna Munro
The idea that of towns as power photovoltaic strength vegetation is quickly gaining prominence, yet in the past there was no huge scale learn of the affects of such improvement on city cloth and infrastructure, or on population. This publication, in response to wide-ranging reports supported by means of the ecu fee and overseas strength business enterprise, is the 1st to correctly handle those issues.This e-book begins out by means of taking a look at the consequences on making plans coverage of PV within the city surroundings, and giving an summary of the implementation and career approaches. It then strikes directly to current targeted case reviews from quite a number ecu cites, reading the position of enormous scale PV installations in city renewal and new city sector improvement stretching again over 15 years.It ends with a evaluate of technical guidance for PV, and regulation/legalities surrounding making plans, construction and grid connection. The booklet will shape an important source for planners and builders who're contemplating together with huge scale PV of their plans and who are looking to comprehend what has (or hasn’t) labored, and why.
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Extra info for Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment: Lessons Learnt from Large Scale Projects
Handover The completed systems should be handed over to the eventual occupants in full working order, commissioned and grid connected. Before handover it is important to check correct operation and administrative set up including: • PV system output – ideally this should be compared to expected output although this will require knowledge of irradiance levels. Alternative methods such as comparing the outputs of different strings can also be used. Appropriate monitoring methods are described in an international standard (IEC, 1998).
The expected annual yield of 9000kWh has been exceeded to 9500kWh. Projects where organizations such as utilities are responsible for operating individual systems on houses have had mixed results. Recent experiences from the Nieuwland project in The Netherlands, set up by the utility REMU (now ENECO), offer a warning that ensuring the successful long-term operation of multiple small PV systems in urban environments takes long-term commitment. This showcase project was set up ten years ago to demonstrate a variety of possibilities for architectural integration of photovoltaics in the urban environment.
The guidelines for the selection of developers required the team to include an engineering office specializing in energy efficiency and renewable energy systems. However it still appeared that none of its members had any serious experience in PV. To remedy this lack, a team of local specialists was set up to assist engineering offices and developers at all stages of the project, from the preliminary design to the commissioning of PV systems. This local team also organized site visits and training sessions and is helping developers in dealing with a complex financial scheme with multiple sources of funding.