Physics and the Rise of Scientific Research in Canada by Yves Gingras

By Yves Gingras

The instructing of engineering and a transformation in liberal arts curricula, either inspired via commercial progress, inspired the construction of specialised classes within the sciences. by way of the Nineties, Gingras argues, expert researchers had all started to seem in Canadian universities. The technological calls for of the 1st international struggle and the founding, in 1916, of the nationwide learn Council of Canada (NRC) sped up the expansion of medical examine. The Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada might now not post every thing submitted to it due to the disproportionately huge variety of study papers from the fields of technology. In reaction, the NRC created the Canadian magazine of study, a magazine particularly devoted to the ebook of clinical learn. by way of 1930, a reliable, nationwide procedure of clinical learn was once in position in Canada. Following the dramatic elevate within the nationwide value in their disciplines, scientists confronted the matter of social id. Gingras demonstrates that during the case of physics this took the shape of a clash among those that promoted a qualified orientation, essential to compete effectively with engineers within the labour industry, and people, as a rule within the universities, who have been excited about difficulties of the self-discipline comparable to ebook, inner administration, and awards. Physics and the increase of medical learn in Canada is the 1st ebook to supply a basic research of the origins of medical learn in Canadian universities. Gingras proposes a sociological version of the formation of clinical disciplines, distinguishing the occupation from the self-discipline, notions frequently pressured through historians and sociologists of science.

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59 During this period he carried out a number of teaching assignments in the Petit Seminaire. He was simultaneously master of discipline, professor of language, physics, and mathematics, and assistant director of students. These duties were the lot of theology students recruited by the directors of the Seminary. Once finished his theological education, Hamel undertook further training in order to prepare himself to teach the sciences in the new university. From 1854 to 1858, he studied at the Ecole des Carmes in Paris, where he became a licentiate in science; he returned to Quebec ready to assume his new duties as university professor.

If learning the trade constitutes the first stage in the reproduction of the researcher's habitus, one must next find a position that allows one to do research. At the turn of the century, only the university brought together the necessary conditions by offering, in additon to time and money, a few instruments and sometimes an assistant, which allowed professors to undertake research. Moreover, not all these students had the same training, and so, depending on whether or not they were engineers, the range of employment offered them was more or less varied.

T. Barnes, who became associate professor in 1901 after having subsisted for five years as a research assistant, would have the time and the institutional resources to continue a research program begun in 1895 with his mentor's impetus. M. Tory, who in 1903 was professor of mathematics at McGill, devoted forty hours a week to course preparation, which left him little time for research. Tory's career as a physicist was therefore quite short, and he devoted the rest of his life to education, founding several universities across Canada.

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