Plant Cell Biology, Structure and Function by Brian E.S Gunning

By Brian E.S Gunning

This article integrates microscopy with plant mobilephone and molecular biology and is an up to date revision of the preferred atlas of micrographs first released in 1975. It comprises over four hundred micrographs and four pages of full-color plates.

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The immuno-gold labelling over a dense globule in the ER shows (i) that tobacco will make pea vicilin, given the necessary genetic information, (ii) that the synthesis can be switched on in leaves (and not just cotyledons, where it normally occurs), and (iii) that the modified vicilin is retained in the ER because of the presence of the retention signal. The arrowheads show the outline of the ER membrane and its continuity with the nuclear envelope. No accumulation of vicilin occurred in the vacuole or cytosol or chloroplast (C).

X67,000 (We thank T. Fraser for this micrograph). The inset shows a free cytoplasmic polyribosome conifuration consisting of a tight helix of ribosomes unattached to membrnes. 4 µm length that is included here may not represent the total length. Comparable polyribosomes in liver cells are based on long stands of helically wound mRNA. Bean root tip cell, x90,000. Page 21 Page 22 8— Smooth and Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum Introduction: Plants manufacture and secrete an enormous diversity of chemical substances.

7c shows oblique surface views of cisternae of rough ER in a hair cell of the alga Bulbochaete, carrying hairpin-shaped polyribosomes. polyribosomes also lie on the outer surface of the nuclear envelope (N-nucleus). The longest examples include about 20 ribosomes in a total length of 500 nm. messenger RNA molecule of this length would contain aabout 1500 nucleotides, with each set of three coding for one amino acid and occupying a length of one nm. Hence the (unknown) protein that is being made in this particular cell is likely to have about 500 amino acids and a molecular weight of about 60,000 (taking the average molecular weight of one amino acid to be 120).

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